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Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be
spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from
plants in the genus Corchorus, family
Jute is one of the cheapest
and is second only to cotton in amount produced and
variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the
(major component of plant fibre) and
(major components of wood fibre). It is thus a
ligno-cellulosic fibre that is partially a textile fibre
and partially wood. It falls into the bast fibre category
(fibre collected from bast or skin of the plant) along
with kenaf, industrial hemp, flax (linen), ramie, etc. The
industrial term for jute fibre is raw jute. The fibres are
off-white to brown, and 1–4 meters (3–12 feet) long.
Jute fibre is often called
jute fabrics are also called hessian cloth and jute sacks
are called gunny bags in some
The fabric made from jute is popularly known as burlap in
For centuries, jute has been an integral part of culture
from West Bengal in India to Bangladesh. In the 19th and
early 20th centuries, much of the
fibre of Bengal was exported to the United Kingdom, where
it was then processed in mills concentrated in Dundee.
Initially, due to its texture, it could only be processed
by hand until it was discovered in that city that treating
it with whale oil, it could be treated by machine. The
industry boomed ("jute weaver"
was a recognised trade occupation in the 1901 UK census),
but this trade had largely ceased by about 1970 due to the
appearance of synthetic fibres.
Jute fibre is
100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus
It is a natural
fibre with golden and silky shine and hence called The
It is the
cheapest vegetable fibre procured from the bast or skin of
the plant's stem.
It is the second
most important vegetable fibre after cotton, in terms of
usage, global consumption, production, and availability.
It has high
tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better
breathability of fabrics. Therefore, jute is very suitable
agricultural commodity bulk packaging.
It helps to make
best quality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sacks. It
is one of the most versatile natural fibres that has been
used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, construction,
and agricultural sectors. Bulking of yarn results in a
reduced breaking tenacity and an increased breaking extensibility when
blended as a ternary blend.
Unlike the hemp
fiber, jute is not a form of cannabis.
The best source
of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the
Ganges Delta, most of which is occupied by Bangladesh